Katharinenstadt

Names: 
Baronsk
Jekaterinenstadt
Jekaterinograd
Katharinenstadt
Marks
Markstadt
Marx
Marxstadt
Баронск
Екатериненштадт
Екатеринштадт
Екатериноград
Маркс
Марксштадт
History: 

Katharinenstadt was founded by Protestant (both Lutheran and Reformed) and Roman Catholic colonists on 27 June 1766 by Baron Caneau de Beauregard.

From the earliest days of the colony, there was also a substantial Russian population in Katharinenstadt.

Following the 1917 Revolution, Katharinenstadt became known as Marxstadt, and today is called Marx.

Church: 

Katharinenstadt was a large colony with colonists from a variety of faith backgrounds. Soon after the founding of Katharinenstadt, a Reformed parish was established in north Katharinenstadt and a Lutheran Parish in south Katharinenstadt. There was also a Catholic parish in Katharinenstadt. There was also a large Russian Orthodox Church in Katharinenstadt.

Katharinenstadt was the largest of the Volga German colonies on the Wiesenseite, and a commercial hub for much of the industry that developed among the Volga German colonies.

Surnames: 
Immigration: 
Population: 
Year
Households
Population
Total
Male
Female
1766
83
283
160
123
1767
 
606
 
 
1769
220
812
431
381
1773
163
615
336
279
1776
 
716
 
 
1788
141
636
326
310
1798*
142
720
355
365
1816
230
1,441
743
698
1834
382
2,468
1,286
1,182
1850
491
3,669
1,862
1,807
1857
423
4,354
2,185
2,169
1859
427
4,654
2,334
2,230
1888
940
6,077
3,080
2,997
1891
 
 
 
 
1894
 
9,639
 
 
1897
 
10,331**
5,148
5,183
1904
 
12,006***
 
 
1910
1,306
15,370
7,737
7,633
1912
 
11,962
 
 
1920
 
15,435
 
 
1921
 
14,476
 
 
1926
 
11,461****
 
 
1927   12,471    
1928   12,859    
1930   13,597    
1933   15,700*****    
1935   15,124    
1939   16,065    

*The description accompanying the 1798 census enumerates 153 households with a total of 779 inhabitants, of which 389 are male and 390 female. They are divided among the denominations as follows: 86 families are Lutheran, 30 are Roman Catholic, and 37 are Reformed.
**Of whom 9,393 were German (7,686 Protestant & 1,707 Roman Catholic).
***Of whom 11,530 were German.
****Of whom 11,260 were German.
*****Of whom 14,176 were German.

Sources: 

- Beratz, Gottieb. The German colonies on the Lower Volga, their origin and early development: a memorial for the 150th anniversary of the arrival of the first German settlers on the Volga, 29 June 1764. Translated by Adam Giesinger (Lincoln, NE: American Historical Society of Germans from Russia, 1991): 350.
- Diesendorf, V.F. Die Deutschen Russlands : Siedlungen und Siedlungsgebiete : Lexicon. Moscow, 2006.
- Heimatbuch der Deutschen aus Rußland, 1972.
- Pallas, P.S. Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des Russischen Reichs. Theil 3,2, Reise aus Sibirien zurueck an die Wolga im 1773sten Jahr (St. Petersburg: Kaiserl. Academie der Wissenschaften, 1776): 613.
- Report of Conditions of Settlements on the Volga to Catherine II by Count Orlov, 14 February 1769.
- Schnurr, Joseph, Die Kirchen und das Religiöse Leben der Russlanddeutschen - Evangelischer Teil (Stuttgart: Landsmannschaft der Deutschen aus Russland, 1972): 195-196.
- "Settlements in the 1897 Census." Journal of the American Historical Society of Germans from Russia (Winter, 1990): 16.

Resources: 

- Katharinenstadt 1767 Census (wolgadeutsche.net)

Map showing Katharinenstadt (1935).

Panorama of Katharinenstadt taken from the north between 1917 and 1941.
Lutheran church is in the distance on the right; the Catholic church steeple can be seen in the distance toward the right.

Panorama of Katharinenstadt taken from the south.

The Catholic church is at the far left side of the photo and the back of the Lutheran church is in the foreground center.
Source: wolgadeutsche.net

Painting of Katharinenstadt showing the Catholic church in the foreground with the Lutheran church behind.
Artist: Michael Boss.
From the collection of Linda Tate, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Map of Katharinenstadt (1933)
[called Marxstadt at the time]
Source: Wolgadeutsche.net

Contemporary Map of Katharinenstadt
Source: Wolgadeutsche.net

Steam Mill of the Sabelfeld Brothers.
Source: wolgadeutsche.net

Market Day in Katharinenstadt.
Source: wolgadeutsche.net

Russian Orthodox Church in Katharinenstadt.
Source: wolgaheimat.net

Katharinenstadt (about 1894). Holy Trinity Lutheran Church is at the end of the street; the steeple of the Catholic Church can be seen on the right side of the street.
Source: oldsaratov.ru via Jorge Bohn.

"Soviet Square" in Katharinenstadt looking toward the Lutheran Church (1928).
Source: wolgaheimat.net

Demonstration in Katharinenstadt (1920).
Source: wolgadeutsche.net

Boys gymnasium (highschool) in Katharinenstadt built in 1922.
Source: wolgadeutsche.net

Boys gymnasium (highschool) in Katharinenstadt
Today the School of the Arts (2008).
Source: wolgadeutsche.net

Katharinenstadt Oberstadt (upper town) school built in 1910.
Source: wolgadeutsche.net

Katharinenstadt Oberstadt school (2008).
Source: wolgadeutsche.net

Market Square in Katharinenstadt with the Lutheran Church in the background.
Source: Jorge Bohn.

Parsonage in Katharinenstadt (1907). Source: Jo. Zitzer via wolgadeutsche.net

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Title: Mitau, Latvia
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Title: Mitau, Latvia
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